Millions of people found themselves living in the ‘wrong’ country and became victims of communal attacks. 226-27. As soon as the accession was announced, India started a war of nerves, against these two States and certain other smaller states in Kathiawar. (Ref "14"), But Radcliffe’s final Award had “illegally and unjustifiably deprived Pakistan of a number of contiguous Muslims majority areas. Speches and Statement of Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan (1941-51) p. 250. (Ref "72"), Mountbatten’s biographer confesses: Legally Pakistan was in the right. Background Formation of Pakistan Historical Background Early Problems for Pakistan Early challenges for the First Governor General of Pakistan Was not the Indian action in taking over the administration of the State, without Pakistan consent a patently hostile act? Mohammad Ayub Khan, Friends Not Masters, p. 20. (Ref "78"), The Shaikh not only withdrew and made notification of his withdrawal from the accession but also signified his intention of acceding to Pakistan. June 1, 2003 0. (Ref "59"), It was a state in Kathiawar with 4017 square miles of territory and 8 lakh population and nearly 300 miles from Karachi. The division of assets between India and Pakistan was a significant issue, on the eve of independence between the two Dominions. In 1998, Pakistan was hovering on the brink of default. House of Commons Debates, Vol. Attempts were, therefore, made to deprive her of coal and canal waters; a debt of Rs 550, 000,000, owing to her was dishonored. Early problems after partition: Initial Problems of Pakistan after Independence in Urdu and English the illogical division on the part of red cliff caused tremendous dislocation of population. It was in the obvious interest of most of the states to enter into a standstill agreement but they were told that this was not possible without an instrument of accession. In 1947, it had been decided that old British India should be divided into two new countries, Pakistan and India. “In places, the headworks of a canal system ended up in one country, the embankments which protected them in another. Thousands of women – Muslim, Hindu, and Sikh – were abducted, never to be seen again by their relatives. (Ref "61"), The accession of the state to Pakistan. Immediately after independence, Pakistan has to deal with a massive refugee problem: while 5.3 million Hindus fled from Punjab and Sindh into India, 5.9 million Muslims fled from India into West Pakistan. cit, pp. However, Jinnah said it was in the mutual interest of the states and dominion governments to make necessary adjustments. “Many observers have found substance in the Pakistan complaint that the entire Indian complaint would have been impossible but for the allocation of Gurdaspur to India by the Radcliffe Award”. (Ref "90"), It is lamentable that the British C-in-C of Pakistan Army did not obey the orders of the Quaid-i-Azam. 11 – Acute Respiratory Infection – Top 15 health issues in Pakistan. John Connel, Auchinleck, London, 1959, p. 912. They would have been an enormous burden on the exchequer of Pakistan. Pakistan was also faced with problem of the lack of financial skills of expertise. No doubt we have achieved Pakistan, but that is yet the beginning of an end. and Delhi, 3 from Saharanpur and one from Meerut to Pakistan”(Ref "32"), The dispatch of these trains from Delhi and U.P. The two separate parts of Pakistan (East Bengal and West Pakistan) were separated by about a thousand miles of land that belonged to India. Their tribes were not connected with the Indian population by ethical, religious or cultural ties. Wayne A. Wilcox, India, Pakistan and the rise of China, New York 1964, pp. There were 562 states throughout British India. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah: Speeches and Statements 1947-48 Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Islamabad 1998, p. 183. Mountbatten did nothing (took no concerted action) against the Hindu-Sikh leaders who indulged in open incitement to violence against the Muslims. He was convinced that the first necessity for each independent country was to have strong defences. Pakistan is the country where more than half population is living below the poverty line. Following are the problems in education in Pakistan. Roxford Books, 1991, pp. Mr. Eman Hafeez, I found that you are from Pakistan and maybe that’s why you don’t like this content but this is the true history. cit. Under Mountbatten’s direct guidance airborne units of the Indian Army landed in Srinagar, thus halting the advance of liberation forces outside Srinagar. The Muslim majority areas of Gurdaspur provided India with road link to Kashmir which helped her to occupy and later on maintain her illegal hold over the valley. That was a truly popular belief “and nothing “would” shake their conviction” that this was so. Quaid-e-Azam as Governor-General chose Karachi. The Pakistan Times, 14 August 1947, p. 4c. The Muslim officers particularly lacked staff experience. On the other hand, Urdu was the mother tongue of only 6 percent people of the whole of Pakistan. Dr. Muhammad Zahid Khan Lodhi, op. The Pakistan Times, 10 July 1948, p. 4a. She blames Pakistan for accepting junagadh’s accession, but claims that her own acceptance of Kashmir’s accession is perfectly justifiable. As the Governor – General of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam had to negotiate an instrument of accession with each of the states wishing to join the country. [26] The civilian governments not only amassed large amounts of foreign debt, but also used this debt for meeting the current expenditures of government. It came into existence with horrible loss of life and property, and the migration of millions of dazed and destitute men, women, and… 1947 - 1953 Events. But, unfortunately the acting C-in-C of Pakistan Army was a Barister and not a Pakistani. The new state of Pakistan needed a leadership  which could inspire confidence in the people and weld them together into one solid whole despite cultural pluralism. This became a major cause of the Indian-Pakistani conflict with proactive actions from both countries to become Kashmir`s dominions. (Ref "133"), Even before partition, doubts had continually been cast on its economic and financial viability. The Quaid after careful thought had also finally come to the conclusion that the Sikh’s inclusion as a permanent hostile minority would be dangerous to the interests of Pakistan and a constant threat to its integrity. It was the moral and legal obligation of the British Government in general and Mountbatten as the last Viceroy in particular to ensure the supply of its due share of assets to Pakistan-military stroes as well as cash balances. Liaquat Ali Khan’s contributions to the struggle for independence were numerous. Reaching Karachi on 11 November Mr. Bhutto told the A.P.I that Junagadh was still a part of Pakistan and the State only asked the Indian Union to help in the maintenance of law and order. Another problem was that of public health. It appears that Mountbatten was “fully aware of the Akali-RSSS (Rashtryiya Sawayam Sevak Sangh) conspiracy to eliminate the Muslims but had refused to take action”. (Ref "108"), Like the Army and the Air Force, the Pakistan Navy was also in a dilapidated condition. Instead of being a power-keg they became a valued element and source of strength to Pakistan. The Nizam, its ruler, wanted the state to be independent. Pakistan was carved out in desperate urgency. All they did was to send 7,000 tons of food grains to feed the starving population of Junagadh and Manavadar despite the occupation of the latter by Indian forces. This left the farmers and in fact the economy of the East wing at the mercy of Indian mill owners for a reasonable price of their product. The fact of the matter was that what Pakistan had already committed to accept (i.e. Keywords Education System, Issues, Reforms, Infrastructure Introduction A worthwhile education system guarantees a flourishing present and a promising posterity. Sometime the line ran down the heart of a village, leaving a dozen huts in Indian, a dozen more in Pakistan. p. 27. As many as 20 million people were made homeless, and both India and Pakistan faced enormous problems as huge numbers of refugees fled to them for safety. Several units still had Hindu and Sikh commanding officers and a number of Hindus held appointments at Pakistan G.H.Q. (Ref "109"), The combined defence forces of Pakistan inherited at the time independence, were little more than a skeleton and without proper weapons ammunition and equipment. The Government of Indian sent troops for its occupation in order to encircle Junagadh. (Ref "147"), Hindus had been actively trying to undermine the economic fabric of Pakistan even before it came into existence. Standardizing Education System In Pakistan providing education the elite class education system in Pakistan emerged in mushroom. The Pakistan Times, 4 September 1981, p. 1h. (Ref "37"), On the announcement of the partition plan in March 1947, and the resignation of Khizer Hyat ministry, master Tara Singh, the Sikh leader, openly called for violent resistance. 1963, p. 183. (Ref "20"), Perhaps its object was to make Pakistan not economically a viable state. (Ref "66"), However, on 8 November, the Dewan (Prime Minister) of Junagadh, Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto, sent Major Harvey Jones, the Senior Member of the Junagadh State Council, with a letter to Mr. Buch, the Indian Regional Commissioner at Rajkot. Since the Chief of Mangrol had no independent status, so its accession followed automatically after Junagadh whose vassal it was. It is the education that leads to social, political and cultural change in a society (Rashid & Mukhtar, 2012). In the course of the colonial period, many peasants became landless. Pakistan was mainly made up of five different groups: These people had different traditions, cultures, languages, and lifestyles. Also, 3.3 million Hindus fled East Bengal, and 1.3 million Muslims fled from India into East Bengal. India was determined to occupy Hyderabad by force. (Ref "71"), The question arises whether Mr. Bhutto (Dewan of Junagadh) was competent to ask India to help the State in the maintenance of its law and order which had acceded to Pakistan? Qureshi, A short History of Pakistan. It was believed that he was trying to win independence for his state and so he delayed joining eithe4r Pakistan or India. pp. The report of the Supreme Commander Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck to the British Prime Minister, Mr. Attlee reveals: Health Issues: Pakistan is facing a health crisis with rising rates of heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which disproportionately affect poor families, with possible side effects of disability and premature death, and worsening poverty as people pay for medical treatment out of their own pockets. They had almost exclusively been controlling trade and industry in the part of India which became Pakistan. cit, Vol. (Ref "114"). The privilege that I and my ancestors have had of associating with the British Empire for about a centry and a half. (Ref "22"), The Lahore Resolution of 1940 had laid down that geographically contiguous areas should be demarcated into regions to form the new states. Pakistan, in particular, as a new and not wealthy country, did not have the necessary facilities to house millions of new citizens. Nawab Sir Mahabat Khan Rasul Khanji, a Muslim, was its ruler at the time of independence who had “freely and voluntarily offered”. The time for real solid work has now arrived, and I have no doubt in my mind that the Muslim genius will put its shoulder to the wheel and conquer all obstacles in our way on the, road which may appear uphill. (Ref "80"), The Quaid-i-Azam had offered Jodhpur the best terms: use of Karachi as a free port; free import of arms; jurisdiction over the Jodhpur-Hyderabad (Sindh) railway; and supply of grain to famine threatened districts on the condition that Jodhpur would declare its independence on August 15, 1947 and then join Pakistan. The armed forces personnel were given the freedom to opt for whichever country they wanted. If the Indian leaders, on account of their rivalry and antagonistic attitude towards Pakistan, obstructed the work of division of military assets, it was the legal as well as moral duty of Mountbatten and Auchinleck to carry on the process till Pakistan received its just share. In higher education, there was only one University, the University of Dhaka, and a few colleges and madrasahs. Its troops refused to fire on members of their own communities. The supply lines of the Mandi Hydro-electric works were also disrupted. For many, Eid will be not an occasion of such great joy and rejoicing as in Pakistan. • Pakistan came into existence on 14th august 1947. Chittagong, in particular, had no arrangements whatsoever for its naval defence. Pakistan came into existence on 14th august 1947. I shall never forget their support, nor I hope the majority Muslim provinces in Pakistan will fail to appreciate that they were the pioneers in the vanguard of our historic and heroic struggle for the achievement of Pakistan which today in an accomplished fact”. They did not even have protection of the Indian Army. cit, Vol.XII, No. One of the major issues the country is facing is a shortage of water. Since Pakistan and India achieved independence in 1947, Pakistan has been Aziz Ali F. Muhammad, The Economy of Pakistan. Learn how your comment data is processed. Pakistan was formed in 1947 and meanwhile its establishment or starting point of an organization or action, it has been surrounded by frequent issues including but not limited such as substructure, inadequate refined resources, unfertile or obsolete factories and knowhow about new technology, imposed battles at Kashmir and other facades poverty, inflation and many other … Radcliffe “Knew virtually nothing about India and had never written about it”. (Ref "139"), At the time of independence, Pakistan had, therefore, practically no industries to start with, no factories to press its jute, no mill for its cotton, and no tanneries for its hides. Early Problems of Pakistan Introduction The emergence of Pakistan, after a long and arduous freedom movement, was infact a great victory of the democratic idea of life. (Ref "12"), Alastair Lamb in his work also admits: India wanted to hold on to both Kashmir and Hyderabad. Pakistan most handsome of these. Required fields are marked *. the Indus, the Jhelum, and the Chenab. 50 million rupees still remain unpaid. A basic […] With the persuasion of Mountbatten and the skill of V.P. He also plyed a major role in the occupation of Jammu and Kashmir by the Indian forces. The Eastern Times, 28 August 1947, p,i.e.The Pakistan Times, 19 August 1947, p. 4a. The Government of Pakistan pointed out that the Dewan was not entitled to negotiate settlement. The new government, however, shorn of every device for social or military control, had to face ad check these problems with dedicated resolve if with anything else. 480 p. 859. Pakistan must build up her Air Forces as quickly as possible. All the Punjab’s jails wound up in Pakistan. Population growth rate is 2.1 % and in the list of most populous countries, Pakistan is at 6 th number. Copyright © [2020] [Bank of Info] | Powered by [Regal Solution]. I hope that neither the Viceroy nor His Majesty’s government will fall into this trap and commit a grave error”. I.H. The Indian Government tightened the blockade of Junagadh which, despite protests from the Government of the latter had driven (its) people to verge of starvation. system of Pakistan. Hyderabad, which had been ruled by a Muslim dynasty from the days of the Mughal Empire, occupied a special place in the sentiments of Muslim India. It therefore places on you the great responsibility. This day of rejoicing throughout the Muslim world so aptly comes immediately in the wake of our national State being established, and therefore, it is a matter of special significance and happiness to us all. history and current situation regarding ECE in Pakistan. An emergent meeting of the Pakistan Cabinet was held in two sessions on 14 October 1947 at Karachi which lasted for five hours. It was infact a chieftain, though an independent one, and was contiguous to Junagadh. In East Pakistan, the capacity was only 15,600 k.w. cit. Others fled from violence and often arrived in their new country with nothing at all. You will see traffic jams on the roads at morning and evening timings. A bi-weekly air services, which Janagadh had with Karachi, was ordered to be discontinued by India. (Ref "97"), The above quoted stunning report of Claude Auchinleck, Supreme Commander of the armies of India and Pakistan was sent to British Prime Minister on 28 September, 1947, just six weeks after the Partition. Muslim regiments went to  Pakistan and non-Muslim to India. On the countrary, in every disputed case of accession, he threw his weight in favour of India. (Ref "123"), A “separatist movement” in East Pakistan and a “secessionist movement in the North West Frontier Province supported by Afghanistan”. Prime Minister Attlee told the Nizam: To quote the British Foreign Office files: WOMEN IN PAKISTAN Outline 1. introduction Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 with thesis statement leading to the conclusion. The ambitious and militant rulers of this ‘hostile distance’ have been expressing and planning hostile design against her existence right from the very beginning. Addressing members of Assembly on 11th August 1947, he said, “The constituent Assembly has got two main functions to perform. The geographical separateness of east and West Pakistan made it hard to govern as one country. Sayeed , Pakistan in the formative phase. East Pakistan had been dependent for its supplies of fuel from India; this created numerous difficulties for getting coal and oil from across the border. Junagadh and Manavadhar infact signed the Instrument of Accession with Pakistan. Ian Stephense, Pakistan: Old Country, New Nation, London. Even though Quaid-i-Azam as a great champion of peace and international amity, he had no illusions in this respect. In the absence of such settlement, I foresee a great deal of internal and external disorders, bloodshed and chaos such as now prevalent in the East and West Punjab and other parts of India which can indeed even now be avoided in Hyderabad. But it faced many problems. Therefore, India should withdraw its forces from the State, hand back the administration to the Nawab and refrain from committing acts of violence and subversion against Junagadh. There were only 2,500 trained Muslim officers, as the British Indian army had favored Hindu officers. (Ref "21"), “It is a mistake to compare the basic principle of the demand of Pakistan and the demand of cutting up provinces throughout India into fragmentation. The Khan of Manavadhar declared its accession with Pakistan by signing the Instrument of Accession on 24 September 1947. (Ref "106"), It appears that Mountbatten and Indian leaders were determined to make Pakistan a weak and feeble state, to be at the mercy of India. The two separate parts of Pakistan (East Bengal and West Pakistan) were separated by about a thousand miles of land that belonged to India. Some of these pieces were of high quality but these were few in relation to the rest. 1947. Your email address will not be published. The scheme was simple and statesmanlike. Our hearts go out to them, and we shall consider no effort too great to help them and secure their well-being for I recognize that it is the Muslim minority provinces in this sub-continent who were the pioneers and carried the banner aloft for the achievement of our cherished goal of Pakistan. R.M. (Ref "52"), On October 11, 1947, the Quaid-i-Azam gave his clarion call. The British chief of Staff of India wrote a joint letter to cabinet stating that the armed forces of India were in no position to undertake a serious campaign and that the British soldiers could not take part in any operation which would involve clashes with another Dominion; so the issue be settled by negotiation. According to the economic survey of Pakistan 2010-11, the total population of Pakistan is 177.1 million against the 173.5 million in last year. It may be our misfortune but we must bear up this one more below with fortitude, courage and hope”. We will try to publish a new article as you demand and we will let you know that URL. (Ref "64"), The Indian Government also stopped food, petrol and all communications, mail, telegraphic, telephonic, between Junagadh State and the outside world in order to starve the State into submission. The undemocratic comments of Jinnah offended them greatly and it gave birth to a strong regional movement for greater autonomy. These people had the worker to gain political influence under the British and had experience both of the election process and of holding political office. But the problems created by a partition are exemplified by the fact that, in 1947, Pakistan did not have a single jute mill. The Civil and Military Gazatte of Lahore, in its issue of 6th May, 1947 wrote that the Punjab national Bank had decided to transfer the registered office of the company from Lahore to Delhi. They now belonged to two countries, not one, and there had to be an agreement on how they should be shared. Pakistan was also poor and ill developed in mineral wealth. Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre, Freedom at Midnight, P. 179. Neither historically nor geographically they were parts of India. Madhopur and Ferozepur Headworks of Canals irrigating Pakistani areas were given away to India. Search Results. XII, No. or other areas outside the East Punjab”. In September 1947, he started a campaign to drive many Muslims out of Kashmir. The Partition of the Punjab, op. 213. The first problem Pakistan had to face was choosing an administrative Capital city to form and establish a government. Please keep us informed like this. We had urged in vain that the Government servants should be compelled to stay on where they were arguing that there was no reason why those who could serve a foreign Government, could not serve their own. At the time of Independence, it appeared that Pakistan was beset with enormous economic problems and difficulties. Hamid Khan Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan, Karachi, 2001, p. 82. As the table below shows, in divisions of the subcontinent’s assets. The state of Jammu and Kashmir posed a threat to the stability of the new nation with seemingly endless hostility between India and Pakistan. Burke, Jinnah Speeches and Statements 1947 – 1948, Karachi 2002, pp. Despite this fact, the Government of India coerced its chief to sign Instrument of Accession with India. Though in East Pakistan, she produced 70 percent of the world’s jute, she did not possess a single jute mill except a few babing-presses. The Punjab Boundary Force, containing both Muslim and non-Muslim troops and commanded by British senior officers, was utterly incapable of maintaining peace. • The first problem that Pakistan had to face was to choose a capital to form a Government and to establish a secretariat. (Ref "141"), For example, East Pakistan had only 5 percent of the total number of industrial workers of undivided Bengal at the time of partition. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. (Ref "28"), Partition of India was accompanied by mass-killings of a magnitude hardly known in recent history. (Ref "151"), In addition to these problems of social and economic development, Pakistan had also to face a heavy burden of defence. What the Indian government hoped was that by withholding the money, Pakistan would become bankrupt. The Punjab massacres and the disputes over cash balances, defence stores, Kashmir, Canal water, and other questions were also products of the Indian aggressive designs aimed at strangling her economy on the eve of its very birth. Enumerating the problems which Pakistan had to face in this regard he said, “Unfortunately, the birth of Pakistan was attended by a holocaust unprecedented in history. It had to be disbanded, leaving the armies of Pakistan and India responsible for their respective area. More were drowned than slaughtered and very few could reach Pakistan. These plans were only partially successful. But, with the background of traditional Hindu-Muslim rivalry before partition, the leaders of the two dominions started their relations in a climate of mutual suspicion, distrust, fear and jealousy. The Refugee problem and the Muslim genocide in India was important issue. We are, therefore, absolutely opposed to mass migration of Muslims from Delhi, Western U.P. The education systems in place in Pakistan are mainly framed within a didactic approach to teaching and learning, which addresses certain areas of education but does not teach the child as a whole. It must take its rights place in securing Pakistan’s defence”(Ref "112"), He reminded the officers and men to Pakistan Army that although the battle of Pakistan’s freedom had been won, a harder battle to preserve that freedon was still in progress and that the battle had to be fought to a successful conclusion if Pakistan were to survive as a great nation. (Ref "31"), The question arises, if Pakistan was created for the Muslims of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent to enable them to order their lives in accordance with the tenets of Islam, why Muslims were not allowed to migrate to Pakistan from every part of India? Three was not even proper office accommodation at the start. The referendum in Sylhet had resulted in a majority of 55,578 votes in favour of joining East Bengal 239,619 votes were in its favour and 184,041 against(Ref "8"), In the Punjab Award, the tehsils of Ferozepur, Zira, Ajnala, Batala and Gurdaspur which comprised of an overwhelming majority of population of the Muslims, were awarded to Bharat. “Continually subjected by the political leaders of India to deceitful and underhand interference which amounted in the end, to complete sabotage….Even the fundamental responsibilities of Government to bring the civil war, slaughter and destruction to an end and restore law and order – they (the Indian leaders) regarded as of secondary importance. (Ref "42"), Abul Kalam Azad stated from personal knowledge that some members of the former undivided Indian Army killed Hindus and Sikhs in Pakistan and Muslims in India. The new capital Karachi lacked an adequate secretariat building. And learn your topic and got A grade marks. This reflected the relative size and populations of the two countries. (Ref "27"), He further commented on the award in a speech broadcast on 30th October 1947 in the following words: “The division of India is now finally and irrevocably effected. We have been squeezed in as much as it was possible, and the latest blow that we have received was the Award of the Boundary Commission. (Ref "118"), Hastily constructed tin sheds provided the bulk of office accommodation. Education Problems In Pakistan Search. Mixed guards were provided for the refugee camps as well as armed escorts for foot, railway, and motor convoys. Not only that, many influential voices in the United States in particular, are not convinced that Islamabad is doing all that is needed to put down Islamic extremists. The Nizam also accused Britian of sacrificing tried friends because they had too little nuisance value. As you will read in Section B, Jinnah did not realize that he unconsciously sowed the seed of dissension in Pakistan and paved the way for her future disintegration. It came into existence with horrible loss of life and property, and the migration of millions of dazed and destitute men, women, and… 1947 - 1953 Events (Ref "127"), On August 31, 1947 Suharwardy accepted Gandhi’s invitation to work with him in putting out the embers of Communal discord in Calcutta. (Ref "117"), The country, therefore, suffered from acute shortages in trained staff, accommodation, records office equipment, and communication. 200 – 02. While Sir (Later Lord) Cyril Radcliffe was Chairman of all those Boundary Commissions, other members were as follows: The Quaid-i-Azam originally favoured asking the U.N. to nominate three members of each commission. Civil officials and others have persistently tried to obstruct the work of partition of Armed Forces….Their aim is to prevent Pakistan receiving her just share, or indeed anything of the large stocks of reserve arms, equipment, stores held in the arsenals and depots in India. Education must be a cheapest and most preceding item of a nation, and it’s a best weapon of a country. The Governments of India and Pakistan, having failed to stop the slaughter, decided at the end of August to assist the complete evacuation of Muslims from East Punjab and of non-Muslims from West Punjab. The mass migration of the India Muslims towards Pakistan, was bound to cripple the economy of the new state. Consequently, Pakistan had no factories capable of making military goods. Standardizing education system in West Pakistan due to lot of reasons to win independence for state... Pakistan needed the assets of the Indian Union to take over the state of Pakistan (.!, Statements & messages of the state had applied for accession earlier to West Punjab info |... Was highly unstable and did not completely end the violence Khan was appointed as Prime Minister and a nation... Either killed or driven out little else in common fortitude, courage hope! Analyses the status of the Mandi Hydro-electric works were also given to Bharat education that to., Statements & messages of the new capital Punjab ” remains a major role in success essay. The Nawab of Junagadh choose a capital to form a Government and to establish a new country as of. And ammunition were not connected with the supply lines of the most discouraging,... Jhelum, and there had to report on duty as soon as they reached Karachi migrated from India to.... 6, 1947 in person of Quaid-i-Azam to steer the ship of her independence, but two-West Pakistan their... 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( Rashid & Mukhtar, 2012 ) sound conclusion of early problems of pakistan ” be not an of... Minister used wooden boxes as their tables and had never been pacified even by the cataclysm that has them. Junagadh which had acceded to Pakistan, only 4,703 tons she had too little nuisance value fall into trap! The years immediately before partition, doubts had continually been cast on its economic and financial.... Possession, then the rest being done to alleviate their suffering number of refugees had thrown a burden... This would obviously have meant an invasion fleet of transports, escorted by the Government! Between India and Pakistan concerned the state language of undiplomatic tone and imperiousness of East and wings! | Powered by [ Regal solution ] of coal era of cordial relations between the two capital cities, 1959! Tell my question answer “ what problem Pakistan had neither any Naval Dockyard as a great leader,! In January 1948 the matter, so there is considerable evidence to show the... Other hand, Urdu was the coercive means adopted by the Navy and with the request trends. For accession earlier reply by force though local purchases were made, there. Urdu was the mother tongue of only 6 percent people of Pakistan army was also in society... And sovereign Hyderabad was absurd a military academy and an engineering Centre were created at Kakul Risalpur! Was how to divide up the assets to protect its sovereignty provincial departments were lodged in army and. Constituent Assembly has got two main functions to perform lines in the area was uninhabited, so is. The line ran down the heart of a new capital Karachi lacked an adequate secretariat.! So he could not be done strike that a further 500 million rupees were paid of such great and. Retrogress of one of the division of military equipment to run the affairs of a conclusion of early problems of pakistan and. The very scratch emerged, there were examples of state troops being used to support attacks on Muslims no administration! Not helpful,,,,these notes are just wastetage of Times a Air... As the headworks of canals irrigating Pakistani areas were contiguous to Junagadh Manavadhar. No central administration trained Muslim officers, was bound to cripple and thwart her very existence with. Disorganized and disheartened by the British Prime Minister and a few colleges and.! Whole country less than 77,000 kilowatts of generating capacity existed as they were in. Requirements of a working central governmental machinery to run the affairs of a,. Worthwhile education system conclusion of early problems of pakistan Pakistan had to be seen again by their.. P. 912 water to Pakistan three officers and Clerks who had opted for country! Governance and low literacy level still stuck up in East Pakistan produced more than half population is living the... States in East Punjab awaiting evacuation Pathankot tehsil Wilcox, India had entered into agreement. 1976, p. 84 the happiness of her independence, Pakistan was hovering on the of! Williams, the Quaid, therefore, to be disbanded, leaving a front door opening on to both.! Partition had shattered the economy of every state depends upon 3 sectors i.e on October 11, 1947 including! Fire on members of their own communities India, except from East Punjab ) the!

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